- Iranian Authorities Confirm Arrests of Three Australian Nationals September 17, 2019
While the detention of dual nationals of Iranian heritage have been on the rise over the last year, Iranian authorities have also been hasty in their treatment and arrests of foreign nationals. The arrest of British-Australian academic, Dr. Kylie Moore-Gilbert, in September 2018, fits a pattern of arresting academics that work on the Middle East.
Moore-Gilbert taught Islamic Studies at the University of Melbourne’s Asia Institute and has done research on Bahrain. Though some reports say that Moore-Gilbert had been sentenced to 10 years on charges of espionage, other sources report that Iranian judiciary authorities have said the conviction and sentence is yet to be determined.
In a separate case also involving Australian citizens, Iranian authorities have also confirmed the arrest of two travel bloggers, Mark Firkin and Jolie King. The couple was detained after allegedly flying a drone with a camera near an Iranian military facility without permission or a permit. The couple has been documenting their travels for over two years online, but reportedly went quiet ten weeks ago.
Though Australian Minister of Foreign Affairs recently denied that the arrests by Iran are politically motivated, such arrests have increased especially since the U.S. abrogation of the Iran deal. As tensions rise under the Trump administration’s “maximum pressure” campaign, Iranian hardliners have taken more repressive measures and innocent people have continued to suffer the consequences. During the early stages of the deal, Iran announced easier visa programs to attract tourists from around the world. But such unjust arrests and brutal treatment deter visitors, reflected in the travel warnings page of the Australian government, which reads, “Iran overall, reconsider your need to travel.”
- Iranian Filmmakers and Artists Speak Out in Support of Nooshin Jafari September 13, 2019
The Committee to Protect Journalists reported last month that an Iranian photojournalist, Nooshin Jafari, was arrested by authorities in Tehran and had her home searched. Jafari has yet to be released and the reported accusations against her allege she was behind an anti-state Twitter account. Sources close to Jafari deny the allegations and argue she is the last person who would run such an account.
Jafari’s work has focused primarily on culture, arts, and films, which has evoked an outpouring of support from the Iranian film and art community. On September 1st Rakhshan Banietemad, a renowned Iranian filmmaker, took to her Twitter account to post a letter signed by 200 prominent Iranian artists. The tweet stated, “We, the family of cinema, theater, and art, express our deep concern for the safety and health of our colleague,” and further called for due process and legal rights to be upheld.
The accusation against Jafari also raises the issue of what is considered “criminal” behavior and the nature of free expression. Artists and filmmakers in Iran are limited by the moral restrictions of the state not only in their private capacity as citizens, but also as artists working in various mediums.
Despite these restrictions, Iranian cinema and arts have flourished, yet the growing crackdown and atmosphere of repression in Iran—especially since the US withdrawal from the Iran Nuclear Deal–seems to have targeted artists in ways not long seen. These developments are particularly deplorable given the value and importance of arts and expression in any society.
- The Tragedy of a Female Iranian Soccer Fan September 9, 2019
For many Iranians, sports, especially soccer, are a source of great pride and joy. While Iranian fans gleefully cheer on their Men’s soccer team in Iran’s stadiums, Iranian women are painfully absent from the scene. Banned from watching soccer matches in stadiums, Iranian women have challenged the exclusion by calling for this basic right.
Some Iranian women have defied this restriction by dressing as men and sneaking into stadiums, an act for which they have been arrested. In fact, a 2006 film by Jafar Panahi, Offside, depicts the story of young female fans dressing up as men to enter the stadium. Unlike the film, the story in real life is much more tragic.
According to Human Rights Watch, Sahar Khodayari, also known as “Blue Girl”, was arrested in March for attempting to enter a stadium to watch a match. Suffering from bipolar disorder, Sahar’s health declined while in custody. After reportedly hearing that she would have to serve six months in prison, Sahar set herself on fire in an attempted suicide. Tara Sepehri Far, of Human Rights Watch, tweeted today that Sahar passed away from her injuries, rightly stating, “No woman, no girl, no human being should ever be arrested or put in jail for trying to watch the sport they love.”
- Women’s Rights and Anti-Hijab Iranian Activists Continue to Get Harsh Sentences August 30, 2019
According to the Center for Human Rights in Iran, Saba Kord-Afshari was recently sentenced to 24 years for peaceful protest against Iran’s mandatory hijab. Like many similar cases, Kord Afshari was charged with “propaganda against the regime” and “illegal assembly”. Authorities have also used cruel measures such as solitary confinement, to force “confessions” out of these activists.
Iranian women have long challenged their compulsory headscarf by pushing the boundaries and limits of the law. While Muslim women who choose to don the hijab often do so without exposing their hair, the mandatory nature of Iran’s hijab law has made Iranian women more creative about their fashion choices. The sight of Iranian women relaxing the way their scarves cover their hair has become commonplace.
However, in recent years Iranian women, with the support of many Iranian men, have protested more vigilantly against the compulsory dress code. Activists have come under more pressure and received harsh prison sentences, as Iranian authorities continue to enforce the repressive law. In fact, well-known human rights attorney, Nasrin Sotoudeh, who has represented these activists, was given a sentence of over 30 years earlier this year.
- Iranian Court Sentences Journalist to 10 Years in Prison and Lashes August 30, 2019
As authorities in Iran continue a crackdown on all signs of dissent, journalists, dual nationals and activists have been further punished with harsh judgments. The case of Marzieh Amiri, a reporter for Iran’s reformist Shargh newspaper, illustrates the lack of due process and cruel penalties many Iranians have suffered for taking part in ordinary life.
As a journalist, Amiri is tasked with investigating and bringing news to people, however, Amiri was detained simply for doing her job. On May 1st, Amiri was taken by authorities while covering a strike by Iranian workers on Labor Day. As the Committee to Protect Journalists rightly stated, “With this heavy sentence, Iranian authorities are escalating their threats against journalists who report on economic issues amid the country’s ongoing crisis.”
Worse yet, Amiri is epileptic and is not receiving proper treatment for her condition, despite appeals by her lawyer. The charges against Amiri include “propaganda against the state” and “collusion against national security”. Such broadly described charges have often been used against Iranians for practicing freedom of speech, press and assembly.
- Iranian Activists Calling for Khamenei’s Resignation Arrested August 26, 2019
The General Intelligence Department of Mashhad and Khorasan province has announced the arrest of 12 people who wrote a letter calling for Ayatollah Khamenei’s resignation. The department claimed their arrests had nothing to do with their call for Khamenei’s resignation. It alleged they had connections with foreign forces and sought to topple the Iranian government.
The letter was released in early June and was signed by civil society activists. The relatives of the arrested signatories of the letter say they were pressured by authorities because of the letter.
Some of the signatories of the letter were arrested after they staged a protest in Mashhad on August 11th. They were protesting in support of Kamal Jafari, an Iran-Iraq War veteran who was one of the signatories of the letter and was sentenced to 13 years in prison. His charges included “insulting the Supreme Leader.” The protests were forcefully dispersed as authorities and protestors clashed.
Similar calls for Khamenei’s resignation have come from other Iranian activists, intellectuals and artists. In August, 14 women issued a different letter calling for the Supreme Leader to step down, grabbing the attention of many Iranians on social media. These women demanded not only a change in leadership, but also a fundamental shift in gender equality and women’s rights.
Though criticism of Khamenei in such an open fashion risks arrest and imprisonment, these activists have shown courage and a steadfast attitude toward the state of affairs in Iran. Rightfully believing that dissent is a right and duty of a citizen, these protestors are boldly challenging the status quo and the fixed position of the Supreme Leader.
- United Nations Special Rapporteur Report on Human Rights in Iran August 22, 2019
The United Nations Special Rapporteur’s (SR) report on the situation of human rights in Iran was released on August 16th. The following is a brief summary and analysis of Javaid Rehman’s report. The full text of the report can be found here.
- The flash floods in March-April 2019 devastated millions of Iranians, resulting in everything from displacement to infrastructure damage and harm to the agricultural sector.
- U.S. sanctions have devastated ordinary Iranians, triggered currency devaluation, and suffocated Iranian traders and businesses. This has resulted in increased inflation and austerity, which in turn exacerbated rising unemployment levels, poverty, and further limited the Iranian people’s access to health, education and other basic services.
- Freedom of expression in Iran remains a major issue, as do violations to the right to life, liberty, due process, and fair trials. The judiciary continues to implement the death penalty, including with regard to child offenders.
- Human rights activists and defenders, journalists, and women continue to be targeted, intimidated, harassed, and face unjust charges of acting against national security, among other tenuous charges.
- Iran’s religious and ethnic minorities, including members of the Baha’i, Christian, Azeri, and Kurdish communities, are continually targeted and prevented from fully celebrating their culture, religion, and language.
- While the number of executions has dropped, Iran still has one of the world’s highest execution rates. Though amending the anti-narcotics law helped to mitigate this, vague, politically driven charges like ‘moharebeh’ that carry the risk of the death penalty continue to exacerbate the issue.
- Iran’s government must adhere to its obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Iran’s government must take seriously the Special Rapporteur’s current and previous recommendations–including his request to enter Iran on monitoring visits.
- Dual British-Iranian Academic Arrested August 19, 2019
Kameel Ahmady, a British-Iranian academic, was arrested on August 11th in Tehran, according to his family. The charges against him have not been announced and it is unclear which institution arrested him. Last year, Ahmady won the World Peace Foundation’s Literature and Humanities Award at George Washington University.
Ahmady’s wife, Shafagh Ahmady, has said that security forces raided their house: “Security forces came with Mr. Ahmady to our house. They totally messed up the place and took documents like birth certificates.”
- Members of the Baha’i Faith Arrested August 19, 2019
At least ten members of the Baha’i faith have been arrested throughout Iran in recent days. On August 10th, three Baha’i Iranians were arrested in Tehran and sent to Evin prison. Another was arrested in Shiraz and has been imprisoned. Other Baha’i Iranians have been arrested in Birjand and Tehran recently.
According to reports, security forces searched the homes of all these individuals and confiscated their personal belongings, including cell phones, identification documents, and computers. Security forces also interrogated and searched the home of Jamaloldin Khanjani, the leader of the Baha’i Society of Iran. Khanjani was imprisoned from 2008 to 2017.
- Iranian Environmentalists Begin Hunger Strike in Jail August 14, 2019
In January 2018, nine Iranian environmentalists were detained by Iranian authorities and accused of “spying” after filming an endangered cheetah. One of the activists, Kavous Seyed Emami—an Iranian-Canadian professor and prominent environmentalist—died while in custody.
Last year, over 300 conservationists pleaded with Iranian authorities to free the eight environmentalists still in jail. Other activists and human rights organizations have also called for the release of these experts. Unfortunately, these appeals have gone unheeded and, according to Human Rights Watch, these activists have spent over 550 days in legal limbo.
Last week, a number of the detainees embarked on a hunger strike in protest of their conditions and to demand due process before the law. The eight detainees—Taher Ghadirian, Niloufar Bayani, Amirhossein Khaleghi, Houman Jokar, Sam Rajabi, Sepideh Kashani, Morad Tahbaz, and Abdolreza Kouhpayeh—are to be applauded, not criminalized, for their efforts to tackle the issue of climate change and environmental degradation in Iran and globally.
- Saeed Malekpour Reunited with Sister in Canada August 5, 2019
Iranian-Canadian resident, Saeed Malekpour, escaped Iran after being released from prison for a few days on furlough. His sister, Maryam Malekpour, posted a video of their long-awaited reunion in Canada on August 2nd, saying, “The nightmare is finally over!”
Malekpour was first arrested in 2008, on a trip to Iran to visit his sick father. His arrest came after he developed a program for uploading photos to the web. Malekpour was detained by Iranian authorities for insulting Islam when the program was used to share pornographic images on Persian language sites. He has long maintained his innocence, stressing he had no knowledge of the program’s use in disseminating pornography.
After a confession under torture, Malekpour was sentenced to death in 2010. After pressure from the Canadian government and human rights groups, Malekpour’s death sentence was commuted and he was given a life sentence. After being granted furlough, Malekpour escaped Iran and returned to Canada where he was welcomed by his sister. The video of their reunion has been viewed and shared extensively on social media, and though heartwarming, the moment is bittersweet given Malekpour has lost 11 years of his young life wrongfully imprisoned.
- Mohammad Rasoulof Sentenced to One Year in Prison July 29, 2019
Award-winning Iranian filmmaker, Mohammad Rasoulof, was sentenced to one year in prison by an Iranian court last week on charges of ‘propaganda against the state.’ The sentence also includes a two-year ban on leaving Iran and involvement in social and political activities. This is not the filmmaker’s first clash with Iranian authorities, which are notorious for their censorship and strict guidelines on artists. Rasoulof has been targeted several times by authorities for his films, which examine government corruption.
The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance in Iran sets rules and restrictions on artists, impeding their ability to express ideas that may be deemed in conflict with state authorities. Despite these hurdles, Iranian cinema has garnered a reputation as a premier international cinema and collected many awards. However, Iranian independent filmmakers, such as Rasoulof, often have their films banned and their permission to work prohibited.
The case of Rasoulof shows the various forms of arbitrary punishment Iranian artists suffer. The Cannes Film Festival, of which Rasoulof has been a past winner, condemned the sentence and called for the filmmaker’s “immediate and unconditional release…So that art and freedom can live.”
- Iranian Student Activist Sentenced to Prison July 23, 2019
University of Tehran student activist, Ali Mozaffari, was first arrested in December 2017 for participating in street protests, along with other student protestors. According to human rights activists in Iran, the charges brought against Mozaffari include conspiracy against national security, insulting the leadership, disturbing the peace, and propaganda against the state.
According to Iranian news reports, after months of court hearings and trials, this week Mozaffari was given a final sentence of 30 months in prison by the court of appeals. As Iranian activists have noted, harsh punishments–especially for student protestors–have become commonplace.
Cases such as Mozaffari are significant for the types of charges brought, which prohibit peaceful and lawful protest activities of Iranian students, as well as the improper treatment they receive once in custody, such as solitary confinement and denial of due process.
- French-Iranian Academic Arrested in Iran July 15, 2019
Fariba Adelkhah, a French-Iranian Anthropologist, was reportedly detained in June on a visit to Iran. Dr. Adelkhah is a researcher at Sciences Po, an elite French research institute focused on Social Sciences and Political Studies.
French authorities have asked for consular access and more information on Adelkhah’s current status, which Iranian authorities have yet to provide. The arrest of a prominent academic such as Adelkhah is a continued pattern of Iranian authorities that wrongfully detain dual nationals on charges of espionage.
Dr. Adelkhah is known for her fieldwork in Iran and research on post-revolutionary Iranian society. In her most celebrated work, Being Modern in Iran, Adelkhah asserts, “to be modern in Iran is to set oneself up as a moral being in a relatively precise context.” Unfortunately, her immoral detention reflects a growing crackdown inside Iran.
- International Campaign to Free Nasrin Sotoudeh July 3, 2019
Over one million people across the world have added their names calling on Iranian authorities to release Nasrin Sotoudeh, the well-known human rights attorney who has twice been imprisoned and is currently serving a 38-year sentence in Iran for her work as an advocate of women’s rights. Read more about her case in a previous NIAC statement.
Sotoudeh’s circumstance has grabbed the attention of a wide range of figures, from celebrities to Nobel laureates. Notably, when a group of prominent women’s rights activists gathered in France earlier this year to discuss the movement for gender equality, a seat was left empty in honor of Sotoudeh.
While Sotoudeh has garnered the admiration and support of human rights activists around the globe, her case is emblematic of a larger crackdown on Iranian human rights lawyers, such as Amirsalar Davoudi, who was also recently given a cruel prison sentence of 30 years. Click here to add your name to Amnesty International’s growing petition, demanding Sotoudeh’s release.